5 Foods to Avoid for Healthy Hormones

Your diet plays a major role in helping you maintain a healthy body. The foods you eat can literally regulate processes of the body, including the secretion and balance of hormones (1). Having balanced hormones is absolutely critical for overall health and vitality in your daily life.  In order to begin making the right choices in this regard, you need to know which foods to stop eating immediately in order to help your body regain control over hormonal processes.

Foods that are beneficial to the body should improve your mood, energy, metabolic rate, bone health, reproductive health, and digestion. If you are experiencing allergies, gut issues, and hormonal imbalance then you need to reconsider the foods you are eating.

Major Factors Contributing to Hormone Imbalances

First, it helps to understand what leads to hormonal imbalances. Instead of just knowing specific foods, I want to help you understand the reasons these foods can be harmful. This way, you can use your own judgement to guide your food choices.

To me, this is the best way to help people be successful in the long run. By understanding core principals of hormone balance, you will be empowered to take charge of your hormonal health.

Blood Sugar Instability

One of the biggest factors for healthy hormones is blood sugar. If you are suffering from massive blood sugar imbalances that have you riding the blood sugar rollercoaster of stimulation, crash, and rampant cravings, then your hormones are not going to be optimal.

In fact, this is probably the single most important factor for improving your hormones. This is why a ketogenic or low-carb style of eating can be so beneficial. Many women try simply cutting down on calories and fats without understanding how important fats are for hormonal health.

A nutrition plan that is reliant on carbs as a primary source of calories can disturb hormones, cause a worsening of menopausal symptoms, and promote additional weight gain (2, 3).

Toxins

Toxins are ubiquitous in our society today, they are virtually unavoidable. While the body has the ability to cope with this to an extent, consuming too many of the wrong foods can overload your detoxification systems. Additionally, specific types of toxins are especially harmful for hormones.

Toxins that influence hormones are called endocrine disruptors and these include things like pthalates, BPA, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals. These toxins can be found in packaged and processed foods, non-organic produce and dairy, beauty care products, home cleaning solutions, and in our indoor air.

One of the most obvious impacts of these toxins is that can have the ability to mimic estrogen in the body, creating a condition called estrogen dominance. This is the most common hormonal imbalance today between men and women alike. These negative effects are most evident in women who experience premature menopause and worsening of menopausal symptoms (4, 5).

Taking steps to reduce our exposure to these things while actively supporting the body’s detoxification systems is an extremely powerful step for balancing hormones.

Artificial Hormones

Artificial hormones from tap water, conventionally raised factory farm animals, and hormonal therapies (birth control, hormone replacement) are extremely unnatural to be exposed to on a regular basis.

Being chronically exposed to artificial hormones has a similar effect to the toxins discussed above, commonly leading to things like estrogen dominance and worsening of menopause symptoms.

Additionally, using hormone replacement therapies eventually downregulates receptor sites for those hormones while disrupting the body’s own production of hormones. This can have lasting effects even after stopping these therapies, potentially even causing complete atrophy of hormonal glands that have become dormant.

Inflammatory Foods

One of the worst things for hormonal health is chronic inflammation. This is part of the reason why a high-sugar diet is such a problem. Foods like wheat (and most grains), pasteurized dairy, vegetable oils, and sugar can cause inflammation in the gut. Soy is an especially problematic food when in its unfermented form even though often considered a healthy food for women (more on this in a moment).

Over time, inflammation becomes damage which leads to leaky gut, a major and common source of chronic inflammation throughout the body.

While there are common inflammatory foods for everyone, each person will tend to have their own personal sensitivities which can be determined via elimination diet or lab testing.

Removing inflammatory foods from the diet while focusing on supporting a healthy gut and digestion can play a significant role in having healthy hormones. Intermittent fasting can also be a powerful tool for this reason.

Stress

Chronic stress wreaks havoc on hormones. One of the primary reasons for this may be due to having elevated cortisol levels. Cortisol is a necessary hormone that signals the brain when to react to an immediate stressor in our environment.

While this is a necessary response, cortisol shares a biochemical pathway with sex hormones in the body. When cortisol is chronically elevated, this detracts from the production of sex hormones and can even exacerbate menopausal symptoms such as headaches, weight gain, loss of libido, and insomnia (6). Chronically elevated stress levels can also have negative effects on blood sugar and thyroid hormones (7).

Symptoms of Hormone Imbalances

For women experiencing menopause, symptoms of hormonal imbalances are severe expression of the menopause symptoms that are considered “normal”. This includes: hot flashes, night sweats, irregular periods, loss of libido, and vaginal dryness. For both sexes, hormone imbalances can cause emotional instability, loss of libido, weight gain, low energy, and more apparent signs of ageing such as wrinkles.

The best way to know the state of your hormones is to test them using either a Male or Female comprehensive cortisol rhythm and sex hormone panel. These simple non-invasive tests require only a few saliva samples and provide a valuable snap shot into your hormonal health. You can use this information to motivate you towards adopting healthier lifestyle habits to propel you towards your health goals.

Top 5 Foods to Avoid for Optimal Hormones

Now that you know some of the top factors affecting hormones, let’s talk about foods. While it is much more advantageous to focus on the foods you CAN eat, sometimes it helps to start with which ones are the most important to eliminate from your diet as soon as possible.

Sugar

As we discussed, blood sugar instability is one of the worst factors for hormonal health. It is safe to say that no amount of processed sugar is healthy in the diet, the average American consumes about 130 grams every day. Most people consume the majority of their calories from carbohydrate sources which locks their body in a sugar burning state.

Instead of a high-sugar, high-carbohydrate diet, use natural sweeteners and follow more of a ketogenic lifestyle.

A ketogenic lifestyle will teach your body to burn fats instead of sugar and get you off of the blood sugar rollercoaster, balancing your hormones in the process. With this you will likely experience more energy, easier weight loss, and an improve emotional stability. You can read how to get started in this article: Keto Metabolic Makeover.

Additionally, opt for natural sweeteners that do not cause massive blood sugar fluctuations such as stevia, monk fruit, and raw local honey or coconut palm sugar in moderation.

Unfermented Soy

Many women are misled into believing that soy is healthy for them because it contains natural estrogens. While soy does contain plant-based estrogens, this does not mean it is healthy for women.

In fact, the consumption of unfermented soy products has often led to worsening of menopausal symptoms (8). For most women, they are likely dealing with excess estrogen already, more estrogenic foods are no the answer.

Fermented soy such as tempeh, miso, and natto can be great foods in moderate amounts.

Unhealthy Fats

It is far too common to see that in an attempt to be healthier, people ditch fats like butter and coconut oil for things like canola or margarine. Processed and damaged fats like canola, safflower, sunflower, and corn are incredibly inflammatory and damaging to the body.

Healthy fats and cholesterol are vital for healthy homones and these include coconut products, avocados, olives and olive oil, and organic pasture-raised animal products.

In fact, consuming a diet that is high in fat and low in carbs has been shown to be superior to a low calorie diet for lowering weight, improving cholesterol levels, and lowering inflammation in the body (9).

Alcohol

Alcohol consumption has several detrimental effects on the body that can disrupt hormones. Alcohol throws off blood sugar, inflames the gut, burdens the liver, and promotes a state of estrogen dominance.

Estrogen dominance is already a rampant issue in today’s society, with both men and women facing the consequences of having excess estrogen.

Conventional Meat and Dairy

Meat and dairy products that come from factory farmed animals is loaded with artificial hormones as well as xenoestrogenic compounds that throw off hormones. This is because artificial hormones are often used to speed growth of the animals while being raised in an unsanitary and inhumane environment filled with toxins.

On the other hand, meat and dairy products from pastured-raised animals can be a great source of healthy fats, conjugated linoleic acid, and butyrate to support hormones and fat-burning.

Foods to Balance Hormones

When it comes to taking the dietary steps to balance hormones, there are 4 things that must be focused on:

  1. Drinking plenty of clean water (reverse osmosis): between .5-1 oz of water for every lb of bodyweight you have. Be sure to drink only away from meal times to allow for optimal digestion.
  2. Plenty of healthy fats. Fats provide a great source of energy and provide raw materials for your body to make the hormones it needs. Training your body to be in a state of ketosis will turn your body into a fat burning machine that balances hormones naturally.
  3. Only consume meat and dairy from pasture-raised animals to avoid many of the toxins encountered with factory-raised animals.
  4. Consume plenty of antioxidant-rich and anti-estrogenic vegetables, herbs, and spices. Cruciferous vegatables are some of the best for this purpose. In fact, broccoli sprouts are one of the most powerful hormone balancing foods.

The pyramid below displays an eating distribution that is designed for optimal hormone function.

Lifestyle Tips for Healthy Hormones

While the foods you eat play a tremendously important role in your hormonal health, there are also daily lifestyle habits that may be equally important.  Our hormones are very susceptible to the amount of toxins we are exposed too, the levels of stress we are under and our quality of sleep.

In addition, regular movement and exercise is so nourishing for our hormone function.  Finally, be sure to pursue healthy relationships as good relationships help our physiology understand we are in a safe place and we can get back in balance.

Daily Detoxification

As was discussed already, much of the hormonal issues encountered today can be attributed to toxin exposure. While following a healing diet can help to mitigate your exposure to many of these toxins, it is virtually impossible to avoid them altogether.

This is why it is important to support your body in detoxification on a daily basis. This means supporting liver health, flushing out the kidneys with super hydration, sweating on a regular basis, along with the rest of the strategies discussed in this article here: 10 Daily Detoxification Strategies.

Reduce Stress

Because of how cortisol is able to wreak havok on sex hormones, it is important that you take the steps necessary to reduce stress and combat chronically elevated cortisol levels on a daily basis.

The number one way to improve your resilience to stress is to balance your blood sugar by following a healing diet full of healthy fats. Other powerful techniques include deep breathing exercises, grounding, sunlight, magnesium supplementation, and using adaptogenic herbs.

Optimize Sleep

The body runs in cycles. One of the most obvious is how we awake in the morning when the sun comes up and fall asleep at night when the sun goes down.

When this rhythm gets thrown off, there are vast consequences that many people don’t realize. Poor sleep throws off blood sugar, drives up inflammation, increases cortisol secretion during the day, and ultimately throws off hormones as well.

Making sure you are getting the best sleep possible is extremely important for healthy hormones. The strategies illustrated below will be the most effective ways of improving your sleep.

Healthy Relationships

While this could technically go under reduce stress, it is important that you engage in social interactions that allow you to laugh and communicate openly. Being surrounded by people that respect and honor your mission in life can be extremely important in determining your daily wellbeing.

If you are constantly engaging in interactions that leave you feeling drained then you are likely driving up cortisol and throwing off your hormones as well.


Exercise

Finally, exercising on a regular basis is critical for healthy hormones. Particularly short-duration, high-intensity exercise that uses large muscle groups 2-4 times a week is excellent for this.

This can come in the form of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), Tabata, sprints, or weight lifting exercises.

 

Conclusion

Hormones affect every aspect of your health. They can govern your energy levels, your mental acuity, and even drive to engage in social interactions. As you take the steps necessary to improve your hormonal health, you will notice extended benefits into many areas of your life.

This starts with eliminating certain problematic foods in your diet while replacing them with healthier choices.

Sources for this Article Include:

1. Ryan, K. K., & Seeley, R. J. (2013). Food as a hormone. Science. PMID: 23430646
2. Ebbeling, C. B., Leidig, M. M., Feldman, H. A., Lovesky, M. M., & Ludwig, D. S. (2007). Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(19), 2092–2102. PMID: 17507345
3. Chaput, J.-P., Tremblay, A., Rimm, E. B., Bouchard, C., & Ludwig, D. S. (2008). A novel interaction between dietary composition and insulin secretion: effects on weight gain in the Quebec Family Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(2), 303–9. PMID: 18258618
4. Dalal, P., & Agarwal, M. (2015). Postmenopausal syndrome. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(6), 222. PMID: 25082954
5. Vahter, M., Berglund, M., & Åkesson, A. (2004). Toxic metals and the menopause. Journal of the British Menopause Society. PMID: 15207026
6. Sakson-Obada, O., & Wycisk, J. (2015). The body self and the frequency, intensity and acceptance of menopausal symptoms. Przeglad Menopauzalny, 14(2), 82–89. PMID: 26327894
7. Ranabir, S., & Reetu, K. (2011). Stress and hormones. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(1), 18. PMID: 21584161
8. Levis, S., & Griebeler, M. L. (2010). The role of soy foods in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(12), 2318S–2321S. PMID: 21047930
9. Steckhan, N., Hohmann, C.-D., Kessler, C., Dobos, G., Michalsen, A., & Cramer, H. (2016). Effects of different dietary approaches on inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition, 32(3), 338–348. PMID: 26706026

This Article Was Written By Our Guest:

Vineetha Reddy

Being a regular practitioner and adviser of everything related to nutrition, fitness, health, and wellness, I also have begun to write and contribute to this knowledge ecosystem on sites like StyleCraze.com. I strongly believe that the ingredients you find in your pantry provide the best benefits for good health. Follow me for my best ideas and solutions

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8 Ways to Beat Tinnitus Naturally

TinnitusCover

8 Ways to Beat Tinnitus Naturally

Tinnitus is a perceived sensation of a ringing, roaring, buzzing, chirping, or humming sound without any actual acoustical stimulation.  It is estimated that over 15 million Americans experience this very disturbing condition on a regular basis.

Research has shown that the many cases of chronic tinnitus are part of a degenerative process characterized by chronic inflammation (1).  Lifestyle based solutions can reverse this inflammatory damage before it is too late.

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Types of Tinnitus:

  • Tonal Tinnitus – This type of Tinnitus generates a continuous sounds like “ringing in the ears”, a single note playing over and over.
  • Pulsatile Tinnitus – The Tinnitus sounds are intermittent, continuous, or pulsating in time with the heartbeat.
  • Whisling Tinnitus:  Tinnitus in which the sound is a ringing, buzzing, roaring, whistling or a hissing noise.
  • Beeping Tinnitus:  Tinnitus, in which the sounds are described as beeping such as a Morse code type of signal, or even musical notes.
  • Multiple Noise Tinnitus:  Tinnitus that is described as hearing several different types of noises at the same time.

Most people with tinnitus have some degree of hearing loss.  This has led to the theory that one cause of tinnitus may be a compensatory homeostatic response of central dorsal cochlear nucleus auditory neurons that make them hyperactive to any form of auditory stimulus (2).

This means that the ears become more sensitive in order to compensate for the hearing loss.  This sensitivity picks up more faint sounds that create the tinnitus.

From a survival perspective, it would be more important to maintain sensitive hearing in order to be aware of danger quickly and live with tinnitus symptoms than to be insensitive to sounds and unable to respond to danger quickly.

The Most Common Causes of Tinnitus:

Tinnitus can be caused by a number of different conditions including build-up of inner ear wax, ear infections, vestibular disorders, exposure to loud noises, Meniere’s disease, low thyroid function, hypertension, allergies and on very rare cases a tumor.   Over 250 medications list tinnitus as a common side effect of usage including aspirin and anti-biotics (3, 4).

One of the most common causes of tinnitus is due to inflammation and poor circulation within the inner ear. When the body is chronically inflamed certain inflammatory mediating prostaglandins are secreted in high amounts (5).

Inflammation is the body’s natural response to tissue damage.  It can be a very good thing.  If you bang your elbow your body will produce inflammation to clean up debris and initiate the healing process.  However, when our body is in a state of chronic inflammation problems arise.  In fact, all degenerative disease such as arthritis, heart disease, cancer, etc. are associated with inflammation at the cellular level (6).

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Must Control Inflammation:

These pro-inflammatory mediators cause an increase in vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation (7, 8).   This decreases blood flow into the smaller capillaries of the body such as the inner ear.  This inflammatory process also increases the lymphatic fluid in the inner ear.  This combination increases pressure in the inner ear which stimulates the auditory nerve enough to create a series of action potentials that the brain interprets as sound.

The presence of inflammatory based tinnitus may be a warning sign that the entire body is inflamed and disease processes are forming rapidly.  Most inflammatory conditions can be reversed through diet and lifestyle modifications and the use of beneficial supplementation.

Upper Cervical Spine and Tinnitus:

A 2000 study showed that tinnitus is very often caused by instability of the craniocervical junction (9).  This could be related to subluxation and joint deformation or a more significant issue such as a prolapsed intervertebral disc or metastases as low as C3.  Issues with the tempero-mandibular joint (TMJ) of the jaw can also play a role in tinnitus.

Chiropractic care specific to the upper cervical spine and TMJ can reduce stress on the region and improve function.  Several studies have shown that chiropractic care addressing the upper cervical spine and TMJ can improve auditory function and have a beneficial effect on tinnitus(10, 11, 12).

An Anti-Inflammatory Nutrition Plan:

Begin eating an anti-inflammatory diet that consists of phytonutrient dense fruits & vegetables, healthy fat sources, and grass-fed/free-range animal products.  Keep sugar & grains to a minimum.  Use coconut, olive oil, grass-fed meat, free range eggs, avocados, nuts/seeds, and non-starchy vegetables as primary fuels throughout the day.

Load up on anti-inflammatory herbs such as turmeric, ginger, dandelion, oregano, garlic, & green tea.  The primary fruits that should be used are low-sugar, anti-oxidant rich sources such as berries, lemons/ limes, & grapefruits.

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High Quality Essential Fats:

Several supplements have been shown to be highly beneficial for reducing inflammation and enhancing circulation throughout the body and in particular the inner ear.   High quality sources of the omega 3 fatty acids EPA & DHA are critical for this process.

Omega 3’s are particularly key for influencing the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory prostaglandin formation (13).   By providing the appropriate balance, these fats help to reduce inflammation and vasoconstriction that are part of the pathogenesis of tinnitus.

Additionally, liposomal curcumin and glutathione are powerful at downregulating inflammatory pathways.  Our Pro Omega CRP product is the best thing I have found for reducing inflammation and improving conditions such as tinnitus.   I really like Nordic Naturals brand due to its commitment to purity through molecular distillation and 3rd party testing.

Vitamin B12 and Tinnitus:

Vitamin B12 is a critical player in the formation of the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate nerve fibers.   A vitamin B12 deficiency makes nerves more susceptible to the inflammatory damage that causes tinnitus (14).

Healthy meat sources are a great way to get Vitamin B12.  Use digestive enzymes and apple cider vinegar with your meat products to enhance protein and B12 absorption.  You can also use specific supplementation to get your B12 levels up.  If you are low in B12, I recommend a sublingual dissolvable form of methyl-B12 in order to get right into the blood stream, so it can go to work without any disruption from the digestive system.

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Boost up Anti-Oxidants:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an enormous role in many disease processes because they damage various structural and functional cellular components.  Studies have indicated that individuals who suffer with tinnitus have elevated serum values for reactive oxygen species (15, 16).

A 2007 study demonstrated that oral antioxidant therapy in patients with idiopathic tinnitus seems to reduce the subjective discomfort and tinnitus intensity (17).  Other studies have shown that elevated levels of magnesium, vitamins A, C and E were effective at reducing trauma to the inner ear structures (18).

8 Steps To Beat Tinnitus:

1)  Good Sleep:  It is absolutely critical to sleep well in order to reduce inflammation and heal.  Inadequate sleep will result in elevated stress hormone production and increased inflammation.  Follow these strategies to improve your sleep quality.

2)  Anti-Inflammatory Diet:  Focus on good fats, anti-oxidants and clean proteins.  Good fats such as coconut oil, grass-fed butter, avocados, olives and olive oil and fish oil provide the key fatty acids needed to for optimal neurological function.   Here is a helpful group of shopping lists to help you follow the right diet.

3)  Intermittent Fasting:  Going 16 hours between dinner and breakfast is one of the best ways to reduce inflammation and improve tissue healing.  Consume your meals in an 8 hour window such as 11am – 7pm.  Read this article for more info on fasting.

4)  Optimize Your Vitamin D:  Low vitamin D3 is associated with chronic inflammation (19).  Be sure to increase your vitamin D through good amounts of regular sun exposure and/or taking a high quality vitamin D3/K2 supplement.

5)  Zinc and Magnesium:  Be sure to optimize your zinc and magnesium levels.  Both of these nutrients are key for reducing inflammation and improving the symptoms of tinnitus.  Pumpkin seeds are one of the richest sources of both zinc and magnesium. Additionally, make green drinks or use super green powders and consume healthy organic meat products.

I recommend using zinc glycinate (40mg – 1x daily) and magnesium threonate, which has been shown to cross the blood brain barrier and positively effect the neurological tissue.

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6)  Chiropractic Care:  Chiropractic care works with the upper cervical spine and the connection processes between the brain and the body.  The key areas that correlate with tinnitus include the upper cervical region, TMJ and the forward head posture.   Find a chiropractor that specializes in taking care of the upper cervical spine, TMJ and reducing forward head posture.  I recommend Maximized Living doctors here

7)  B Vitamins:  Be sure to optimize your B Vitamins.  You can get an indepth test to see where your B vitamins are as well as your neurotransmitters and gut microbiome with the organic acid test here.

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8)  Use Lemon & Lime:  Citrus bioflavinoids found in lemon and lime as well as other citrus fruits help to improve capillary permeability.  They do this by protecting the endothelial tissue from oxidative stress.  They not only help to improve blood flow into the inner ear but they also help to protect the internal membranes of the ear from oxidative stress.

Drink lemon water in the morning each day, put a lemon/lime in a fresh made green juice and squeeze lemon/lime on meat and vegetable dishes.

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Sources For This Article Include:

  1. Han BI, Lee HW, Kim TY, Lim JS, Shin KS. Tinnitus: Characteristics, Causes, Mechanisms, and Treatments. Journal of Clinical Neurology (Seoul, Korea). 2009;5(1):11-19.
  2. Schaette R, Kempter R. Development of tinnitus-related neuronal hyperactivity through homeostatic plasticity after hearing loss: a computational model. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Jun;23(11):3124-38. PMID: 16820003
  3. Han BI, Lee HW, Kim TY, Lim JS, Shin KS. Tinnitus: Characteristics, Causes, Mechanisms, and Treatments. Journal of Clinical Neurology (Seoul, Korea). 2009;5(1):11-19.
  4. Vestibular Disorders Association: Tinnitus: Ringing in the Ears Link Here
  5. Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA. Prostaglandins and Inflammation. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2011;31(5):986-1000.
  6. Edwards T. Inflammation, pain, and chronic disease: an integrative approach to treatment and prevention. Altern Ther Health Med. 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):20-7; quiz 28, 75. PMID: 16320856
  7. Smith JB. Prostaglandins and platelet aggregation. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1981;651:91-9. PMID: 7034481
  8. Rajtar G, Cerletti C, Castagnoli MN, Bertelé V, de Gaetano G. Prostaglandins and human platelet aggregation. Implications for the anti-aggregating activity of thromboxane-synthase inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Feb 1;34(3):307-10. PMID: 3918536
  9. Montazem A. Secondary tinnitus as a symptom of instability of the upper cervical spine: operative management. Int Tinnitus J. 2000;6(2):130-3. PMID: 14689631
  10. Emary PC. Chiropractic management of a 40-year-old female patient with Ménière disease. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2010;9(1):22-27.
  11. Björne A. Assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders in tinnitus patients. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:215-9. PMID: 17956785
  12. Cherian K, Cherian N, Cook C, Kaltenbach JA. Improving tinnitus with mechanical treatment of the cervical spine and jaw. J Am Acad Audiol. 2013 Jul-Aug;24(7):544-55. PMID: 24047942
  13. Bagga D, Wang L, Farias-Eisner R, Glaspy JA, Reddy ST. Differential effects of prostaglandin derived from omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on COX-2 expression and IL-6 secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18;100(4):1751-6. PMID: 12578976
  14. Shemesh Z, Attias J, Ornan M, Shapira N, Shahar A. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with chronic-tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss. Am J Otolaryngol. 1993 Mar-Apr;14(2):94-9. PMID: 8484483
  15. Neri S, Signorelli S, Pulvirenti D, Mauceri B, Cilio D, Bordonaro F, Abate G, Interlandi D, Misseri M, Ignaccolo L, Savastano M, Azzolina R, Grillo C, Messina A, Serra A, Tsami A. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and tinnitus. Free Radic Res. 2006 Jun;40(6):615-8. PMID: 16753839
  16. Neri S, Mauceri B, Cilio D, Bordonaro F, Messina A, Malaguarnera M, Savastano M, Brescia G, Manci S, Celadini M. Tinnitus and oxidative stress in a selected series of elderly patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2002;8:219-23. PMID: 14764394
  17. Savastano M, Brescia G, Marioni G. Antioxidant therapy in idiopathic tinnitus: preliminary outcomes. Arch Med Res. 2007 May;38(4):456-9. PMID: 17416295
  18. Le Prell CG, Hughes LF, Miller JM. Free radical scavengers, vitamins A, C, and E, plus magnesium reduces noise trauma. Free radical biology & medicine. 2007;42(9):1454-1463.
  19. Mangin M, Sinha R, Fincher K. Inflammation and vitamin D: the infection connection. Inflamm Res. 2014 Oct;63(10):803-19. PMID: 25048990

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